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The spread of kurgans, funeral mounds in which women were sometimes buried along with weapons. Archeological digs undertaken since the end of the s, particularly of kurgans, in the regions of the Caucasus, proves that the steppe was inhabited by horse-riding peoples from the end of the Bronze Age until at least the time of the Roman Empire. Among these peoples, men and women hunted and fought together. The most recent technology DNA analysis proves that some of the deceased whose bodies are marked by war wounds and who were buried along with their weapons were women.

While these may not have been Amazons in the epic sense, they certainly were women warriors.

Birth of Athena

It has been a custom since Antiquity to refer to combative women judged to be exceptional as Amazons. Already for the Greeks, such women were modern Amazons—that is, descendants of warlike and mythical foremothers. Thus, Artemisia, the queen of Halicarnassus, who fought the Athenians in the battle of Salamis in B. There have been many other modern Amazons with no connection to the ancient Amazons of poetry, who mythically represent the potential strength and autonomy of women in all domains of social life.

Plan de l'exposition Introduction Eternal minors?

The Elusive Gynaeceum Deprived of Culture? Kept out of Sports? The Female Body Veiled Women? Antiope, the daughter of Nykteus Nycteus , had a name among the Greeks for beauty, and there was also a report that her father was not Nykteus but Asopos Asopus , the river that separates the territories of Thebes and Plataia Plataea. This woman Epopeus carried off but I do not know whether he asked for her hand or adopted a bolder policy from the beginning.

The Thebans came against him in arms, and in the battle Nykteus was wounded. Epopeus also was wounded, but won the day. Nykteus they carried back ill to Thebes, and when he was about to die he appointed to be regent of Thebes his brother Lykos Lycus for Labdakos Labdacus , the son of Polydoros, the son of Kadmos Cadmus , being still a child, was the ward of Nykteus, who on this occasion entrusted the office of guardian to Lykos. He also besought him to attack Aigialea [Sikyon] with a larger army and bring vengeance upon Epopeus; Antiope herself, if taken, was to be punished.

As to Epopeus, he forthwith offered sacrifice for his victory and began a temple of Athena, and when this was complete he prayed the goddess to make known whether the temple was finished to her liking, and after the prayer they say that olive oil flowed before the temple. Afterwards Epopeus also died of his wound, which he had neglected at first, so that Lykos had now no need to wage war. As she was being taken to Thebes by way of Eleutherai Eleutherae , she was delivered there on the road. Asios [Greek poet C7th B.

The first thing inside is a statue of Antiope. They say that her sons were Sikyonians, and because of them the Sikyonians will have it that Antiope herself is related to themselves. Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. The inhabitants of Tithorea in Phokis like to steal earth from it when the sun is passing through the constellation Tauros. For if at that time they take earth from the mound and set it on Antiope's tomb, the land of Tithorea will yield a harvest, but that of Thebes be less fertile.

For this reason the Thebans at that time keep watch over the tomb. The wife of Lykos Lycus [i. Dirke Dirce ] worshipped Dionysos more than any other deity. When she had suffered what the story says she suffered [at the hands of the sons of Antiope], Dionysos was angry with Antiope. For some reason extravagant punishments always arouse the resentment of the gods. They say that Antiope went mad, and when out of her wits roamed all over Greece; but Phokos [eponymous king of Phokis], son of Ornytion, son of Sisyphos, chanced to meet her, cured her madness, and then married her.

So Antiope and Phokos share the same grave.



The story goes that Antiope was ill-treated by this Dirke, and therefore the children of Antiope put Dirke to death. Pausanias, Description of Greece I have already in my account of Thebes mentioned how Antiope went mad because of the wrath of Dionysos, and the reason why she brought on herself the anger of the god; I have also told how Phokos, the son of Ornytion, fell in love with her, how she married him and is buried with him, and what Bakis Bacis the soothsayer says about this grave in common with that of Zethos and Amphion at Thebes.

Clement, Recognitions Smith Greek Christian rhetoric C2nd A. Amongst those whom we have mentioned [of the adulteries of Zeus], he violated some being transformed, like a magician. In short, he seduced Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus, when turned into a satyr, and of her were born Amphion and Zethus.

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 7 trans. Grant Roman mythographer C2nd A. Epopeus king of Sicyon], and as a consequence was cast off by her husband Lycus. Thus widowed, Jupiter [Zeus] embraced her. But Lycus married Dirce. She, suspecting that her husband had secretly lain with Antiopa, ordered her servants to keep her bound in darkness. When her time was approaching, by the will of Jove [Zeus] she escaped from her chains to Mount Cithaeron, and when birth was imminent and she sought for a place to bear her child, pain compelled her to give birth at the very crossroads.

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Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 8 : "Antiopa of Euripides which Ennius wrote : Antiopa was the daughter of Nycteus, king in Boeotia; entranced by her great beauty, Jupiter [Zeus] made her pregnant. When her father wished to punish her on account of her disgrace, and threatened harm, Antiopa fled. By chance Epaphus [i. Epopeus], a Sikyonian, was staying in the place to which she came, and he brought the woman to his house and married her. Nycteus took this hard, and as he was dying, bound by oath his brother Lycus, to whom he left his kingdom, not to leave Antiopa unpunished.

She bore sons, and left them there, but a shepherd reared them, naming them Zetus and Amphion. Antiopa had been given over to Dirce, Lycus' wife, for punishment. When opportunity presented itself, she fled, and came to her sons. But Zetus, thinking her a runaway, did not accept her.

ANTIOPE - Theban Princess of Greek Mythology

Dirce, in the revels of Liber [Dionysos], was brought to the same place. There she found Antiopa and was dragging her to death. But the youths, informed by the shepherd who had reared them that she was their mother, quickly pursued and rescued their mother, but slew Dirce, binding her by the hair to a bull.

When they were about to kill Lycus, Mercurius [Hermes] forbade them, and at the same time ordered Lycus to yield the kingdom to Amphion. Zethus and Amphion, by Antiopa, daughter of Nycteus. Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. Melville Roman epic C1st B. Statius, Thebaid 7. Mozley Roman epic C1st A.

Antiope daughter of Nycteus]. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. Rouse Greek epic C5th A. Right on the back of his quiver of lovebolts he had engraved with letters of gold a sentence in verse for each. On the back of his quiver of lovebolts he [the god Eros] had engraved with letters of gold a sentence in verse for each The first takes Kronion Cronion to the bend of heifer-fronted Io. The second shall Europa woo for the bold bull abducting. The third to Plouto's Pluto's bridal brings the lord of high Olympos. The fifth shall offer Semele a burning fiery wedding.

The sixth shall bring the King of heaven an eagle to Aigina Aegina. The seventh joins Antiope to a pretended Satyros Satyr. Nonnus, Dionysiaca Other references not currently quoted here : Malalas Chr.