Da qui a centanni (Narrativa) (Italian Edition)

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Marriage, Motherhood, and the Italian Film Stars of the s. Scene femminili : Educational Theater for Women. What Do Mothers Want? Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This volume brings together specialists from a variety of disciplines to develop a deeper understanding of the social, political, and cultural history of women in Italy in the years Despite being a time when women and the family were at the center of national debates, and when society changed considerably, the fifteen years following the Second World War have tended to be overlooked or subsumed into discussions of other periods.

By focusing on the experience of women and by broadening the frame of reference to include subjects and sources often ignored, or only alluded to, by traditional analyses, the essays in this volume break new ground and provide a corrective to previous interpretive models. Such an amalgam participates in and, intentionally or inadvertently, borrows from a range of literary gen- res. Among the most prominent of these filiations, I want to propose, are the romance epic, the confessional allegory and, as a gesture of anticipa- tion, science fiction. The scenes that suggest profitable comparisons between Cervantes and Collodi are Pinocchio's visit to the puppet theatre in Chapters 10 and 11 and the interlude of Don Quixote and Sancho at Master Pedro's puppet theatre in Part II, Chapters Though embraced by his "brothers-in- wood" in that "dramatico-vegetal company" , Pinocchio actually causes a riot and faces the wrath of the ferocious puppet master, Fire Eater.

Only when he pleads for Harlequin's life and only when Fire Eater sneezes is Pinocchio granted mercy and sent on his way as a happier and, for the moment, richer puppet. The episode in Cervantes uncovers the power of the puppet theatre's illusion. Don Quixote and Sancho are members of the audience for the story of Melisendra, a noblewoman reputed to be the daughter of Charlemagne, who has been abducted by Moors.

Don Gaiferos, Melisendra's husband, rides to Spain to reclaim his beloved, hero- ically lifting her from the balcony to the crupper of his steed. Don Quixote interrupts the performance three times: once to exhort the boy-interpreter to "keep to the straight line of [his] story" without "curves and tangents"; another time to question the accuracy of the account of Moors ringing bells; and the most dramatic intervention, to bound onto the stage to behead the Moorish puppets who are pursuing the French fugitives.

In light of the abrupt halt that Don Quixote brings to the performance by destroying the puppet theatre, for which destruction he reimburses Master Pedro handsomely "in good Castilian currency" , his first interruption against embellishment seems ironic, since it is the very power of this artifice that instigates his pas- sionate response. He explains "that everything that took place seemed to [him] very real indeed"; moreover, he defends his actions as fulfilling "the duties of [his] profession as knight-errant" Don Quixote's unique — 34 — PiNOccHio's Shared Humanity combination of "madness and liberality" is also connected to the response of Fire Eater's puppets to their brother-in-wood.

Theatrical illu- sion and the artifice of a blood bond link the puppets as forcefully as the compulsion that propels the Knight of the Mournful Countenance to leap onto the stage and defend the fleeing puppet heroes from the pursuing puppet Moors. In each instance the initially vexed puppet master is pla- cated; while Master Pedro receives money, Fire Eater gives gold coins to the selfless Pinocchio who begs for Harlequin's life.

Both circumstances use the platform of the puppet theatre to emphasize the power of illusion. While Don Quixote and Pinocchio might be considered artistic rela- tives, the connection between Collodi's puppet and Bunyan's distressed, salvation-bound pilgrim appears, at first glance, much more tenuous. However, both Christian and Pinocchio are engaged in dangerous, unpre- dictable, yet necessary journeys. Each continually searches for meaning, interpreting the episodes of his journey as signs toward its fulfilment.

Yet the consequences of these encounters are undeniably more serious for the pilgrim than the puppet. Their meetings with serpents are a case in point. Bunyan's Apollyon is a monstrous fire-belching beast, "with scales like a Fish, Wings like a Dragon, feet like a Bear" Bunyan, 47 ; he and Christian are locked in a life-and-death wrestling match, which only abates when Christian realizes he has "wounded Apollyon with his two-edg'd Sword" Bunyan, At the mid-point of his adventures, when he has resolved to "become a well-behaved and obedient boy" en route to his father's house, Pinocchio encounters the green-skinned, pointy tailed, fiery eyed Serpent who blocks his path.

This is not a scene of martial com- bat, but of strategy gone comically wrong. The Serpent fakes out the hesi- tant puppet, who tries to jump over him at the very moment when the ser- pent shoots up "like a released spring" The slapstick does not stop here, for the serpent laughs so hard at Pinocchio's predicament, upside down in the mud, that he bursts a bloodvessel and dies. While Christian advances prudently from strength to strength, Pinocchio falls prey easily to another temptation, "a few bunches of muscat grapes" , which pre- cipitates the next calamity.

For all the shared, programmatic features of their adventures, The Pilgrims Progress and Pinocchio exist in different moral topographies.

A high-minded seriousness separates Christian and Faithful, who are determined to "buy the Truth" 74 , from the jeering hawkers of Vanity Fair, and from the easily swayed puppet who follows — 35 — Patricia Demers Lampwick to Funland with the lure of a "wonderful life of ease passed in fun and games all day long without ever coming face to face with a book or a school" A comparable abjection characterizes both locales.

With such members as Mr. Blindman, Mr. No-good, Mr. Love-lust and Mr. Hate- light, the jury at Vanity Fair is hardly impartial; Faithful is "burned to Ashes at the stake" 80 and Christian is imprisoned. Less overt malice, in the form of the lethal, de-humanizing lure of sloth, is on display in Funland. The boys crowded into the wagon trundling to this "true land of heart's desire" are "piled on top of one another like anchovies in brine" When these eight- to fourteen-year-olds walk on their hands and imitate hens cackling, they create "such pandemonium, such screeching, such a wild tumult, that you needed cotton wool in your ears to keep from going deaf" Lampwick's transformation to a donkey is complete, but "the famous Donkey Pinocchio known as The Star of the Dance" eventually earns release from his jackass state.

Though both fairs sell ephemeral, deceitful wares, Funland and Vanity Fair are designed on two parallel discursive planes.

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Bunyan's Fair exists as a moral theorem, an estab- lished, proven, reiterated principle; journeyers to the Celestial City, who do not wish to "go thorow this Town, must needs go out of the World' Collodi's is an experiential ethics addressed to the will, a reluctant will; the experience must unfold before the warning to "poor gullible boys turned into so many donkeys Though both Christian and Pinocchio have great potential for saving themselves, Bunyan's pilgrim is almost diffident about flexing his salva- tional muscle. After a night of prayer as a prisoner in Doubting-Castle, he announces that he has the ability within, the Key of Promise, to free him- self and Hopeful.

Christian runs the race to gain salvation; Pinocchio completes the process of successful socialization. Pinocchio's relationships with his brothers-in-wood, his schoolmates, the Blue Fairy, and his carver-father supply one indicator of his maturing social skills. Because this grouping represents a balance of human and spe- cially animated personalities, it also illustrates Collodi's adroitness in mak- ing both sorts of exchanges valuable and engaging.

Based on the evidence of Collodi's narrative, Pinocchio fares better with puppets than humans. The members of Fire Eater's marionette troupe hug, clasp, and pinch Pinocchio, raising him on their shoulders and carry- ing him "in triumph before the footlights" By contrast, Pinocchio's first day at the public school is full of tricks and taunts. By this point in his adventures Chapter 26 Pinocchio, determined to reform, sounds like a responsible adult reasoning with his schoolmates, '"I didn't come here to play the fool for you.

I respect others, and I want to be respected'" Wooden blows convince mere flesh to take the new schoolmate seriously. Pinocchio's relationship with parental figures is more complex. In the guise of the Little girl with blue hair, the Good Fairy, and the kindly woman, the Blue Fairy intervenes at key moments to rescue and help Pinocchio. Despite the fact that he lies to her about having the four gold coins, she saves him from the hanging tree, sees to it that he is attended by doctors and nursed back to health, and ultimately fulfils her promise of making him into a real boy.

Geppetto deals with Pinocchio's truculence, disobedience, truancy, and absence, yet he loves him unconditionally.

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Although the Fairy and Geppetto's lectures about industry and resolve are often disregarded, Pinocchio slowly comes to realize what they are saying. Perhaps it is debatable whether fully-grown or growing humans remain more or less resistant to good advice. Can obduracy or perversity be charted chronologically?

Although a gap of almost a half-century separates the fiction of Collodi and Asimov, 3 the questions and claims involved in acknowledging the humanoid capacity of a robot are similar to those implicated in believ- ing in Pinocchio's humanity. While George Weston defends Robbie as "the best darn robot money can buy A perfectly programmed playmate, Robbie "cower[s]" at Gloria's threatened spanking, is "hurt at [her] unjust accusation," gives in "immediately and unconditionally before [her] ultimatum" 21 , and, most evocative of the human, wants to hear a story, in this case Cinderella, again and again.

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The title character is a robotic companion. He walks, runs, and plays games, but he does not develop, talk, or communicate beyond the emotional responses attributed to him. Asimov makes no men- tion of tears, or furrowed brows, or irregular breathing. Although Robbie is allowed to stay with the Westons "until he rusts" 38 , Gloria as a teenag- er outgrows and discards him.

The Asimov story, which is not featured in the summer blockbuster movie 7, Robot, forcefully underscores the ideological, temperamental, and narratological differences between an ini- tiating, venturesome, fully realized piece of wood who earns humanness and an agglomeration of metal parts that is discussed as a curiosity. Hence Robbie and Pinocchio live in opposite, mutually exclusive realms. However, another recent film in the sci-fi genre, Steven Spielberg's A.

Artificial Intelligence, released in 1 , invokes parallels and allusions to Pinocchio to forge connections between the "mecha" child-robot "who can love," "a perfect simulacrum" called David, and Collodi's puppet-boy.

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Based on a short story by Brian Aldiss and developed from preliminary story boards inherited from the late Stanley Kubrick, A. But it seems to me that the film's invocations of Pinocchio accentuate the divides between the bleak, destabilizing futurism of sci-fi, where desires for human status can be both indulged and repudiated, 4 and Collodi's suggestive tale of the unique yet resonant process of becoming human.

As an example of the desire to be human, consider the situation of the android Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation; by contrast, Arnold Schwarzenegger's Terminator character repeatedly declares "I am a machine. After his adoptive parents leave him "in the woods" to fend for himself, because the return of their dead "real son," who has been cybernetically restored to life, has caused tensions in the family, David's pursuit of the Blue Fairy, who, he is convinced, will make him a real boy so that he "can come home," begins in earnest.

David cannot be returned as a surplus article to Cybertronics; since he has been "hardwired" to love only one person, his 'mother,' and his "individual space-time pathway has been used," he would only be junked for parts — an ominous forecast of the second half of the film, in which David's quest takes him to the phantasmagoric Flesh Fair and Rouge City.


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The basic narrative patterns of A. The mecha force, represented by David and "Joe Gigolo," are pitted against the orgas, led by vindictive humans who hunt and round up mechas while shouting racist-sounding slogans such as "'purge yourself of artificiality!

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The Flesh Fair of A. Theories of origination and primacy account for some of the binary divi- sions in the film, and for another major contrast with the putative ur-text by Collodi. Unlike Pinocchio, who is an entirely original, spontaneous cre- ation despite the numbers of subsequent imitations , David is a deliber- ately modelled child-robot, bearing all the physical characteristics of the late son of the scientist who designed him.

In fact, Dr. Hobby lectures David somewhat pedantically that his son was "one of a kind," whereas David is merely "the first of a kind. Hobby puts it, or the voice-over narrator's description of "the everlasting moment" when "David went to sleep Collodi's episodic romp still tingles with suggestive potentiality open to each reader's interpretations and needs, while Spielberg's film directs, cues, and moulds responses. The mecha alliance of David and Joe Gigolo, based not only on Joe's big brotherly pro- tection but on the fact that his sexual prowess does not impress the uncom- prehending David, is very different from the friendship, based on loyalty and attempted though not always successful rescue, between Pinocchio — 39 — Patricia Demers and the fellow puppet Harlequin and Pinocchio and Lampwick, the lazy schoolboy.

Another ostensible link to Collodi's story is David's search for the Blue Fairy as the saviour who will transform him to a real boy. Several scenes are bathed in blue light: David's bedroom, the moon that signals the roving patrols for the Flesh Fair, and the underwater city. Isolated and soli- tary, David speaks to a blue plaster statue of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and prays as he freezes to a blueish plaster female figure who eventually dis- integrates.

By contrast, Collodi's Blue Fairy is not a sought-after illusion. She simply appears, talks, and acts. Pinocchio gradually becomes aware of her importance and of his responsible indebtedness. He is not a tearful, sentimental figure, desperate for a mother's love and a home, but an autonomous agent who slowly constructs the surprising, undeserved inter- ventions from which he benefits into elements of emerging human self- hood. Though extracting selective detail from Collodi, Spielberg's A. Although Mary Alice Murray's first English translation is now con- sidered a collector's rarity, 6 Ann Lawson Lucas's Oxford World Classics translation is readily and affordably available.

Pinocchio remains a delight- ful, diverse character for illustration, with illustrated editions in Italy alone being catalogued at the centenary of the text's publication. One of the most engaging recent illustrations, a hybrid of Maurice Sendak and M.