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Medicines like corticosteroids, antidepressants, and antiseizure medicines can cause you to gain some extra weight. Emotional eating—eating when you're bored or upset—can lead to weight gain. Too little sleep may also contribute to weight gain. People who sleep fewer than 5 hours a night are more likely to become obese than people who get 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night. Obesity has a far-ranging negative effect on health.
Each year in the U. The health effects linked with obesity include:. Excess weight needs more blood to circulate to the fat tissue and causes the blood vessels to become narrow coronary artery disease. This makes the heart work harder, because it must pump more blood against more resistance from the blood vessels and can lead to a heart attack myocardial infarction.
More circulating blood and more resistance also means more pressure on the artery walls. Higher pressure on the artery walls increases the blood pressure. Excess weight also raises blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lowers HDL "good" cholesterol levels, adding to the risk of heart disease. Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes.
Obesity can make your body resistant to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. When obesity causes insulin resistance, your blood sugar level rises. Even moderate obesity dramatically increases the risk for diabetes. Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, happens more often in obese people. Coronary artery disease is also more common in obese people because fatty deposits build up in arteries that supply the heart. Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart can cause chest pain called angina or a heart attack.
Blood clots can also form in narrowed arteries and travel to the brain, causing a stroke. Obesity can affect the knees and hips because extra weight stresses the joints. Joint replacement surgery may not be a good choice for an obese person because the artificial joint has a higher risk of loosening and causing more damage. Sleep apnea causes people to stop breathing for brief periods during sleep.
Obesity in America
Sleep apnea interrupts sleep and causes sleepiness during the day. It also causes heavy snoring. Breathing problems tied to obesity happen when added weight of the chest wall squeezes the lungs. This restricts breathing. Being overweight or obese increases your risk for a variety of cancers, according to the American Cancer Society.
Among obese women, the risk increases for cancer of the endometrium or the lining of the uterus in younger women. Men who are overweight have a higher risk for prostate cancer. Both men and women who are obese are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The National Cholesterol Education Program says that metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Metabolic syndrome has several major risk factors. These are stomach obesity, high blood triglyceride levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance severe type 2 diabetes. Having at least three of these risk factors confirms the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Physicians must therefore evaluate BMI results carefully on a individual basis. Despite outlier cases where BMI is an inappropriate indicator of body fat, its use provides a reasonable measure of the risk of weight-related health factors across most individuals across the general population.
Malnutrition can arise in three forms: hunger and undernourishment , which is defined as dietary energy intakes below the minimum levels necessary to achieve and maintain a healthy weight; micronutrient deficiency , which is defined as a lack of essential vitamins and minerals required in small amounts by the body for proper growth and development; obesity or overnourishment , which is defined as dietary energy intake which exceeds requirements for maintenance of a healthy bodyweight.
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Overweight and Obesity | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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